The platform is based on Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) technology as implement by Anatoly Churumov (Byteball) with a complete overhaul of the witness mechanism and several other components. Consensus
We solve the problem of consensus by analogy with Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT), while using the economic mechanism of sustainability: proof-of-stake (PoS). Masternodes (or validators, in terms of PoS systems) are Witnesses (in terms of Byteball DAG architecture). Witnesses certify the branches of the graph (transaction chains) creating a unified version of reality (i.e. the graph grows in one direction). Virtual machine
In the current version we use TCP / IP as well as the Bitcoin network, but are also investigating the advantages of libp2p, developed by the IPFS team. libp2p is a modular and extensible networking stack which allows complex applications to use only those protocols that they absolutely need, without compromising compatibility and update capabilities. Database
As data storage for our graph we use Berkeley DB (BDB), a high-performance embedded database management system implemented as a library. BDB is a non-relational database - it stores key-value pairs as byte arrays and supports multiple values for one key. BDB can serve thousands of processes or threads that simultaneously manipulate 256 terabytes of databases, on a variety of hardware under various operating systems, including most UNIX-like systems and Windows, and on real-time operating systems. As INDEX we use almost the same solution that is used in Bitcoin, levelDB. Serialization
To minimize amount of sent and stored data we use Protocol Buffer serialization. Protocol Buffers is a flexible and efficient mechanism for serialization of structured data - similar to XML, but smaller, faster and easier.
Protocol buffers have many advantages over XML for serializing structured data:
● 3-10 times more compact;
● 20-100 times faster;
● More unambiguous;
● Allows the creation of classes. Cryptography
Currently we use ECDSA cryptography with sha-256 hashing. In the near future we will use SHA-3 standard. SHA-3 is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards and is a subset of the wider cryptographic family Keccak. Keccak is based on very effective sponge functions. The design of the sponge allows you to enter ("absorb") any amount of data and output ("compress") any amount of data, acting as a pseudo-random function for all previous input data. 2. Business logic
All witnesses are legally defined - they are a party to the contract with formally fixed rights and duties in relation to users of the system.
There are many ways to delegate assets to selected candidates for the creation of different versions of delegated PoS. Moreover, delegation is carried out legally, in accordance with the terms of the witness agreement.
It is allowed to form witness groups united by general public contracts for the implementation of any tasks within the framework of projects implemented on the platform. 3. Hardware
Node can be run both on user servers, on VPS, and on specially produced hardware masternodes. Hardware masternodes are dedicated, single-board, stand-alone servers with a pre-installed and partially synchronized network node. The main purpose is the removal of technical barriers and adoption by ordinary users (lawyers, notaries, officials).
The user is authorized with a USB key, connection - via LAN or WiFi. 4. Economy
Emission is produced simultaneously in the formation of a genesis unit.
The total amount of emission is 1e15 coins.
Mining is not available; the commission for transactions is determined by the selected group of witnesses and the established market balance as a result of the competition of certification centers (masternodes).
Prior to the formation of market mechanisms for regulating the value of coins, quasi-market value is being filled on the basis of an estimate of the ratio of capitalizations of projects included in the platform.
Based on preliminary calculations, the estimated exchange rate is about 2500 coins per one SNTR token. This coefficient is not constant and will change.
Owners of SNTR tokens can swap them for coins of a platform at will. It is also possible to reverse the swap before the circulation of coins on exchanges. 5. GitHub
Our github is publicly accessible and can be found here: https://github.com/Chain-in-Law/cil-core